Elisabeth Richeza, the Queen of Poland
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, a Spanish general
King Louis XIV of France dies on this day. His reign spanned 72 years, making him it the longest rule of any major monarch in Europe.
Auguste-Henri Forel, a Swiss entomologist
Heinrich Otto Ludwig, a composer
Germany attacks the city of Danzig on this day. This attack marks the official start of World War II.
On this day, any Jewish people living in Germany are made to wear a yellow Star of David as an identifying symbol.
This day marks the formal surrender of Japan and an end to World War II.
The United States, New Zealand, and Australia sign the ANZUS Treaty.
A revolution in Libya spurs Muammar Gaddafi to depose his rival King Idris.
Octavian’s army defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s forces at the Battle of Actium, effectively ending the Roman Republic.
Richard the Lionheart meets with Saladin to sign a treaty regarding Jerusalem.
Vincenzo Scamozzi, an Italian architect
Georg Bohm, a German organist and composer
William Somervile, an English poet
The September Massacres take place as mobs kill three bishops and several hundred priests they think are sympathetic to the royal cause.
Eugene Field, a journalist and author famous for the creation of “Little Boy Blue”.
Woldemar Voigt, German physicist
Paul Bourget, French critic, novelist, and writer
General Sherman of the Union captures the city of Atlanta and sets it ablaze.
Nazi forces send Anne Frank to Auschwitz.
Terry Bradshaw, an NFL quarterback and later sports announcer
Adriano Banchieri, Italian organist and composer
Abraham Trembley, Swiss zoologist and biologist
The British Empire and the colonies in America adopt the Gregorian Calendar. This causes people to riot at the loss of 11 days of the year.
The United States flies its own flag in battle for the first time in Delaware during the Revolutionary War.
James Joseph Sylvester, English academic skilled in mathematics
The New York Sun officially begins publishing the first daily newspaper.
Frederick Douglass disguises himself as a sailor to escape from slavery.
Alan Ladd, American actor and later producer
Giacome della Chiesa, cardinal, becomes Pope Benedict XV
Allied forces repel Germany at the Battle of Verdun.
Lyudmila Karachkina, Ukrainian astronomer
Redfoo, American singer, songwriter, dancer, and producer
The last Western Emperor of Rome, Romulus Augustulus, surrenders the throne after Odoacer’s forces invade. This marks the end of the Western Empire of Rome.
Alexander III of Scotland
European navigator Henry Hudson becomes the first man to discover the island of Manhattan.
Edmond Halley, an English astronomer, observes a comet that would later be named after him.
John Dillon, Irish politician, poet, and activist
As part of the Civil War in the US, General Robert E. Lee leads thousands of Confederate troops to invade Maryland.
This date marks the first successful test of Thomas Edison’s light bulb invention in widespread use.
Antonio Bacci, prominent Italian cardinal
Geronimo agrees to a surrender. This action marks an effective end to the US-Indian conflicts throughout the region.
Albert Orsborn, Englishman and General of The Salvation Army
English author Beatrix Potter pens her first “Peter Rabbit” story for a young boy.
Henry Ford II, American businessman
Paul Harvey, American radio host and personality
Louis XIV, French monarch
The Great Fire of London ends. In its wake, thousands of homes are destroyed and eight people are dead.
Nearly all of America’s thirteen new colonies agree to a trade embargo with Britain during the first Continental Congress. This event is held at Carpenters’ Hall in Philadelphia.
China begins its First Opium War.
Jesse James, American outlaw
World War I’s Battle of Marne begins now, and French and British forces prevent German advance on Paris.
Bob Newhart, American actor
Raquel Welch,American actress
Freddie Mercury, British songwriter, singer, and producer
Michael Keaton, American actor
Experts record Hurricane Irma as the most powerful Atlantic Ocean one in history. Its wind speeds reached 185 miles per hour.
An expedition returns to Spain to report their success at circumnavigating the earth. The force lost Ferdinand Magellan, their captain.
The Mayflower departs from Plymouth to sail to America. It has just over 100 pilgrims on board.
Marquis de Lafayette, French military officer who took part in the American Revolutionary War
Jane Addams, American activist and social reformer, commonly referred to as the “mother” of social work
Joseph P. Kennedy, an American investor, businessman, and politician
Anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots American President William McKinley while the latter visits New York’s Pan-American Exposition.
The rest of the world finally receives news that explorer Robert Peary discovered the North Pole five months earlier.
Clarence Saunders opens the Piggly Wiggly in Memphis, Tennessee. It becomes the first true supermarket.
Roger Waters, English bassist, songwriter, and singer
Jane Curtin, American actress
General Titus leads the Roman army to both occupy and plunder the city of Jerusalem.
Elizabeth I, Queen of England, Ireland, and the last monarch of the House of Tudor
The War of Spanish Succession ends thanks to Emperor Charles VI and the Treaty of Baden.
Pedro I declares that Brazil is officially independent from Portugal and marks the former’s national day of celebration.
Grandma Moses, American artist
A child named Edith McLean becomes the first baby to use an incubator. The State Emigrant Hospital cares for her.
Paul Brown, American football coach
Eugene Lefebvre dies in an aircraft during a test of the Wright biplane. He is the first official pilot to die in this way.
Louise Suggs, professional golfer
Buddy Holly, American singer and songwriter
Roy DeMeo, American hitman working for the Mafia
Richard I, also known as Richard the Lionheart, the King of England
Dimitry defeats the Mongols at the Battle of Kulikovo.
Michelangelo unveils his David in the city of Florence.
Juan de Elcano, a Spanish navigator, returns to Spain.
St. Augustine, Florida plays host to the first permanent European settlement in America.
The Dutch surrender the New Netherlands colony to English soldiers. This surrender includes New York.
Charles J. Guiteau, American assassin known for killing James Garfield
Peter Sellers, British actor and voice artist
Patsy Cline, American singer and songwriter
Bernie Sanders, American politician and activist
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijack and destroy three airliners.
Pink, American musician
“The Oprah Winfrey Show” receives its first national broadcast.
King Olaf is defeated at the Battle of Svolder in one of the greatest battles of the Viking Age.
The United Colonies officially become the United States of America.
Alexander Twilight receives his bachelor’s degree and is likely the first African-American to graduate from college.
Leo Tolstoy, Russian author
Fred Spofforth, Australian cricketer
Colonel Sanders, American businessman and entrepreneur
The British Army creates its first mechanized unit.
Cliff Robertson, American actor
Adam Sandler, American comedian and actor
The Palestine Liberation Organization exchanges letters of recognition with Israel.
Queen Elizabeth II sets a record for the longest-reigning monarch in Britain, having ruled for 63 years and seven months by this point.
Maria Theresa of Spain, the last ruler of the House of Hapsburg
Nathan Hale volunteers to be a spy at George Washington’s request.
Elias Howe secures a patent for his sewing machine.
Elsa Schiaparelli, Italian fashion designer
Leopold and Loeb receive guilty verdicts for the murder of Robert Franks.
Arnold Palmer, American golfer
Roger Maris, American baseball player
Stephen J. Gould, historian and evolutionary biologist
Colin Firth, British actor
Hamida Djandoubi becomes the last person to receive an execution via Guillotine in France.
CERN powers up its Large Hadron Collider. Many feel it is the biggest science experiment in history.
William Wallace, a Scottish rebel, defeats English forces at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.
Spain announces an expulsion order against the Moriscos of Valencia.
Prince Eugen defeats Turkish forces at the Battle of Zenta, putting an end to Ottoman control in Central Europe.
Charles XII halts his march on Moscow outside the city of Smolensk.
D. H. Lawrence, English painter, literary critic, poet, and novelist
Ed Sabol, American filmmaker
Ferdinand Marcos, leader of the Philippines
Tom Landry, American coach and football player
Bashar al-Assad, Syrian politician and President of Syria
Harry Connick, Jr., American singer, actor, and composer
Terrorists hijack and crash three planes into the Pentagon and the two World Trade Centers. A fourth plane crashes in a field after passengers attempt to retake it.
Henry Hudson, English navigator and explorer
Charles Messier begins his Messier Catalogue by mistakenly identifying the Crab Nebula.
Fritz Hofmann obtains the first patent for synthetic rubber
Jessie Owens, American athlete
Leó Szilárd first entertains the idea of a nuclear reactor.
Four teenagers near Lascaux discover the Lascaux Cave Paintings.
Barry White,American singer and songwriter
The Supreme Court orders Central High in Little Rock, an all-white school, to begin integration procedures.
The USSR launches the first spacecraft to make an impact on the Moon.
Paul Walker, American actor
Jennifer Hudson, American actress and spokesperson
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre receives its consecration in Jerusalem.
Francis of Assisi receives stigmata after praying on Mount Verna.
Daniel Defoe, English writer and trader
US General Winfield Scott captures Mexico City during the American-Mexican War.
Milton Hershey, American businessman
John. J. Pershing, an Army general for the United States during World War I.
Arnold Schoenberg, Austrian-American composer
Claudette Colbert, French-American actress
Ronald Dahl, British novelist, fighter pilot, and screenwriter
IBM’s first commercial computer with a hard drive, the RAMAC 305, weighs over one ton.
Norway unveils the Oslo Accords, a peace agreement the country brokered between Israel and Palestine.
Britain and the colonies in America adopt the Gregorian calendar.
Alexander von Humboldt, a Prussian naturalist, explorer, and geographer
Napoleon occupies Moscow and the fires start, extinguished by the 19th.
Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist
The first helicopter takes a tethered flight in Connecticut.
Sam Neill, a New Zealand actor of Irish descent
Hindi becomes an official language in India, and the population celebrates this day as Hindi Day.
A facility in Washington, D.C. performs the world’s first prefrontal lobotomy.
Saudi-Arabia, Venezuela, Kuwait, Iran, and Iraq form OPEC.
Dmitry Medvedev, Russian Prime Minister and ex-president
Amy Winehouse, an American singer and songwriter
Marco Polo, a Venetian explorer and merchant
The first free public school for non-aristocrats in Europe opens in Italy.
The countries of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua declare their independence from Spain.
Scientist Charles Darwin reaches the Galapagos Islands.
William Howard Taft, an American president
Agatha Christie, an English mystery novelist
Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
Ashley Cooper, an Australian tennis player
The tide turns at the Battle of Britain as the Luftwaffe loses 56 of its planes.
Dan Marino, an American footballer
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, a Nigerian writer
Developers register “Google.com” as a domain name.
British forces take Cape Town from the Dutch.
Mexico calls for an end to Spanish rule.
All French territories move to abolish slavery.
Bonar Law, a UK prime minister
James Cash Penney, an American businessman
Karl Dönitz, an admiral during World War II and President of Germany
Roald Amundsen, a Norwegian explorer, finds the Magnetic South Pole.
B.B. King, an American blues musician
Elgin Baylor, an American basketball player
Tim Raines, an American baseball player
Sabah, Sarawak, Singapore, and Malaya form the Federation of Malaysia.
A 7.7 magnitude earthquake hits Tabar, Iran.
Steve Jobs is named interim CEO of Apple.
Amr ibn al-‘As and his forces conquer Alexandria. Arab forces under Amr ibn al-‘As conquer Alexandria.
Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek makes the first known report of the existence of bacteria. is the first to report the existence of bacteria.
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, a continental army general
Marquis de Condorcet, a French philosopher
The Battle of Antietam marks the bloodiest day in the history of the Civil War. Over 23,000 soldiers are killed on Union ground.
Commonwealth of Australia comes into existence.
The famous Red Baron scores his first aerial victory near Cambrai.
Hank Williams, an American musician and singer
Anne Bancroft, an American actress
Phil Jackson, a Basketball player and coach
Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India
The Camp David Accords provide a framework for possible peace between Egypt and Israel.
Trajan, the Emperor of Ancient Rome
An expeditionary force from Britain conquers parts of the Dutch Indies.
Three-quarters of Moscow is destroyed by a fire that finally extinguishes after five days.
Jay Cooke & Co, a bond agency, collapses and begins the panic that will start the Long Depression.
John Diefenbaker, a Canadian prime minister
Greta Garbo, a Swedish-American actress
Royal rulers approve the Irish Home Rule bill.
Japanese forces fake a railway explosion as a pretext for invading Manchuria.
Scotty Bowman, an ice hockey coach
The Minister of Justice for the Nazi Party approves the extermination of “asocials”.
James Gandolfini, an American actor
Lance Armstrong, an American cyclist
The city of Bejing holds a funeral for Mao Zedong.
Antoninus Pius, a Roman emperor
The Black Prince and forces from England defeat France and capture its king.
Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, a French astronomer and mathematician
Prussian forces besiege Paris.
All women in New Zealand get the right to vote in elections.
Jeremy Irons, a British actor
Jimmy Fallon, an American television presenter
An 8.1 magnitude earthquake devastates the people of Mexico City.
AZT becomes available to AIDS patients.
William Golding, a British novelist
Flavius Aetius defeats Attila the Hun and halts the Hun invasion.
Muhammad comes to Medina.
Magellan’s expeditionary force sets off to circumnavigate the globe.
Upton Sinclair, an American novelist, journalist, and activist
Maxwell Perkins, an American literary editor
Red Auerbach, an American basketball coach
Sophia Loren, an Italian actress
Sani Abacha, a politician and military leader
Guy Lafluer, a Canadians ice hockey player
An alliance of British and French troops defeat Russian forces at the first battle of the Crimean War.
The eastern and western sides of Germany seek to ratify reunification.
President of the United States George W. Bush officially declares war on terror.
King James I grants Alexander Sterling a charter to colonize Nova Scotia.
The National Convention formally abolishes the French monarchy via a charter during the Revolution.
H. G. Wells, an English writer
Empress Dowager Cixi ends the Hundred Days’ reform and seizes power in China.
Kwame Nkrumah, President and Prime Minister of Ghana
Cecil Chubb purchases Stonehenge.
Warren G. Harding approves a resolution for a Jewish homeland within Palestine.
Leonard Cohen, a Canadian poet and singer
The Spanish junta promotes Franco to Supreme Commander.
Stephen King, an American author
Communist leaders in China establish the People’s Republic.
Bill Murray, an American actor
Faith Hill, an American country music singer
Anne of Cleves, a consort to Henry VIII
The Salem Witch Trials perform the final hangings for those found guilty of witchcraft in the United States.
The French First Republic is formed and strips the French king of his influence.
President Lincoln announces his intention to free slaves next year.
Charlotte Cooper, an English tennis player
Paul Muni, a stage and film actor
Tom Lasorda, an American coach and baseball player
Andrea Bocelli, an Italian singer and songwriter
Martin Crowe, a New Zealand cricketer
The Indo-Pakistani war ends.
Iraq invades Iran.
Scientists at CERN discover neutrinos that break the speed of light.
Augustus Caesar, the first Emperor of Rome
The Concordat of Worms goes into effect.
Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan Dynasty
Tripolitsa falls during the Greek War of Independence.
Mary Mallon, or “Typhoid Mary,” the first person identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the disease
Herman Hollerith patents a machine that marks the beginning of data processing.
Fusajiro Yamauchi founds Nintendo Koppai as a way to market the Hanafuda card game.
Aldo Moro, an Italian politician
Ray Charles, an American musician
The “Manhattan Project” begins.
Marty Schottenheimer, an American football coach and player
The Byzantine Empire begins its decline with the death of Manuel I Komnenos.
Girolamo Cardano, an Italian mathematician and physician
John Marshall, an American politician
The Federal Judiciary act creates a six-person Supreme Court within the US.
Panic erupts on Wall Street as Gould & Fisk seek to corner the gold market.
The Imperial Japanese Army wins the Battle of Shiroyama.
F. Scott Fitzgerald, an American screenwriter and novelist
Ayatollah Khomeini, religious leader and politician
Jim Henson, an American puppeteer
Phil Hartman, a Canadian actor and comedian
All Jews living in Yemen move to Israel.
Schools in Little Rock receive executive orders to desegregate.
King Harold Godwinson and his English forces defeat invading Norwegian forces.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa is the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.
The United States Congress lays out a proposal for the Bill of Rights.
William Faulkner, an American novelist
Leonardo Torres Quevedo’s remote guiding of a boat is considered the first remote control.
Ethel Rosenberg, an American citizen convicted of spying for the Soviet Union
Michael Douglas, an American actor
Christopher Reeve, an American actor
The first transatlantic phone cable goes into use.
Will Smith, an American actor and rapper
Catherine Zeta-Jones, a Welsh actress
Francis of Assisi, the founder of the Franciscan Order
Frances Drake completes his circumnavigation of the earth.
A Venetian army damages the Parthenon after it attacks the Acropolis.
Support for the Glorious Revolution begins.
Austria, Prussia, and Russian form the Holy Alliance with one another.
Charles Vyner Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak
T. S. Eliot, an English author
Albert Anastasia, an Italian mobster
The largest and most costly offensive of World War I, the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, begins.
Olivia Newton-John, an Australian singer and actress
Serena Williams, an American tennis player
Troops led by William the Conqueror sail for England.
A massive earthquake occurs near China.
Ignatius Loyola founds the society of Jesuits.
Samuel Adams, an American statesman
John Adams opens negotiations with Great Britain.
Agustín de Iturbide, a Mexican general and politician
Agustin de Iturbide and his forces occupy Mexico City and end the War of Independence.
Scholar Jean-François Champollion deciphers the Rosetta stone.
A physics journal introduces the world to Einstein’s “mass-energy equivalence” equation.
Bhagat Singh, an Indian revolutionary
The first Ford Model T car rolls off the assembly line.
Kathy Whitworth, a professional golfer
Gwyneth Paltrow, an American actress
Avril Lavigne, a Canadian singer
Confucius, a Chinese philosopher
Livia, a Roman empress
William the Conqueror and his forces invade England at Pevensey Bay.
Augustus FitzRoy, a British nobleman
The Siege of Yorktown begins.
The Yellow River floods, leading to one of history’s deadliest disasters.
Alice Marble, an American tennis player
Peter Finch, an Australian actor
Most of Lithuania goes to the USSR as part of the German-Soviet Frontier Treaty.
Hilary Duff, an American actress
Darius I of Persia becomes King of the Persian Empire.
Themistocles defeats Xerxes I at the Battle of Salamis.
Pompey the Great, a Roman general
Miguel de Cervantes, a Spanish novelist
The War of Religion begins in France.
Horatio Nelson, an admiral in the Royal Navy
The London Metropolitan Police releases its first units.
Anita Ekberg, a Swedish actress and model
Jerry Lee Lewis, an American singer and pianist
Lech Wałęsa, a Polish politician
The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffers its largest single-day point loss.
American dentist William Morton is the first person to use anesthetic ether.
Otto von Bismarck delivers his famous “Blood and Iron” speech”.
Buddy Rich, an American jazz drummer
Truman Capote, an American author
Elie Wiesel, a Jewish writer, activist, and Holocaust survivor
Chamberlain, Hitler, Daladier, and Mussolini sign the Treaty of Munich.
Nuremberg finds twenty-two leaders of the Nazi Party guilty of war crimes.
Marion Cotillard, a French actress
Martina Hingis, a Swiss tennis player
Maddie Ziegler, an American dancer